3. State of the Colony.Under these circumstances, drunkenness became fearfully prevalent; the freed convicts gave themselves up to unrestrained riot, and, when intoxicated, committed the most brutal atrocities; the soldiers also sank into the wildest dissipation; and many of the officers themselves led lives of open and shameless debauchery. This was the community Governor King had to rule. He made an effort to effect some change, but failed; and we can hardly wonder at the feeling of intense disgust which he entertained and freely expressed. 4. Mutiny of Convicts. Most of the convicts, on their arrival in the colony, were “assigned”----that is, sent to work as shepherds or farm-labourers for the free settlers in the country; but prisoners of the worst class were chained in gangs and employed on the roads, or on the Government farms. One of these gangs, consisting of three or four hundred convicts, was stationed at Castle Hill, a few miles north of Parramatta. The prisoners, emboldened by their numbers and inflamed by the oratory of a number of political exiles, broke out into open insurrection. They flung away their hoes and spades, removed their irons, seized about two hundred and fifty muskets, and marched towards the Hawkeury, expecting to be there reinforced by so many additional convicts that they would be able to overpower the military. Major Johnstone, with twenty-four soldiers of the New South Wales Corps, pursued them; they halted and turned round to fight, but he charged with so much determination into their midst that they were quickly routed, and fled in all directions, leaving several of their number dead on the spot. Three or four of the ringleaders were caught and hanged; the remainder returned quickly to their duty. 5. Origin of Wool-growing.During Governor King’ term of office a beginning was made in what is now an industry of momentous importance to Australia. In the New South Wales Corps there had been an officer named Macarthur, who had become so disgusted with the service that, shortly after his arrival in Sydney, he resigned his commission, and, having obtained a grant of land, became a settler in the country. He quickly perceived that wool-growing, if properly carried on, would be a source of much wealth, and obtained a number of sheep from the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope, with which to make a commencement. These were of a kind which did not suit the climate, and his first attempt failed; but in 1803, when he was in England on a visit, he spoke so highly of New South Wales as a country adapted for wool-growing, that King George III. was interested in the proposal, and offered his assistance. Now, the sheep most suitable for Macarthur’s purpose were the merino sheep of Spain; but these were not to be obtained, as the Spaniards, desirous of keeping the lucrative trade of wool-growing to themselves, had made it a capital crime to export sheep of this kind from Spain. But it so happened that, as a special favour, a few had been given to King George, who was an enthusiastic farmer; and when he heard of Macarthur’s idea, he sent him one or two from his own flock to be carried out to New South Wales. They were safely landed at Sydney, Governor King made a grant of ten thousand acres to Mr. Macarthur, at Camden, and the experiment was begun. It was not long before the most marked success crowned the effort, and in the course of a few years the meadows at Camden were covered with great flocks of sheep, whose wool yielded annually a handsome fortune to their enterprising owner.
4. 犯人叛乱。尽大无数犯人正在达到殖民地之后“各司其职”——也便是说，以牧人或农夫的身份为正在乡下的自正在住民工作；而刑罚最沉的犯人则被集合照管，掌管修谈或者正在当局的农场工作。其中的一帮，约莫有三四百犯人，驻扎正在帕拉玛塔以北几英里的城堡山一带。这帮犯人仗着人多，加上其中少许政治犯的饱动，忽然发动了一场公然的叛略冬他们用锄头和铁锹卸掉身上的镣铐，抢了 250 来只滑膛枪，直接向霍克斯伯里进发，预备正在那儿收编更多的犯人，从气力上压服军队。约翰斯通中校率领新南威尔士军团的 24 名士兵举行追击，叛军停下来，转而提议起攻。约翰斯通武断地杀进其中，犯人们很快被击败并四散而遁，只留下少许当场被打死的犯人的尸体。领头的三四个犯人被俘获，处以绞刑；剩下的很快也回到自己的本来岗位上。